Duponchelia adults have a wingspan of 19 to 21 mm. Their forewings are gray-brown in colour with two yellowish-white transverse lines. The outermost of these lines has a pronounced “finger” that points towards the back edge of the wing. When at rest the wings are held out from the body forming a triangle. The adult body measures 9-12mm in length. The head, antennae and body are olive brown. The abdomen has creat-coloured rings encircling it. The legs are pale brown.
False codling (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) is a Small moth (6-9 mm long) which is active at dusk and during the night. It is a significant pest because of its potential economic impact on many crops, including stone fruit, avocado, citrus, corn, cotton and macadamia.
Tuta absoluta eggs are just 0.5 mm long and can be found on the underside of young leaves or on the stems. A female can lay 260 eggs.
Young larvae are 1mm long and creamy yellow, after time they become greenish in colour and up to 7mm in length. The adult Tuta absoluta is a grey-brown moth, males are slightly darker than females. The moth is only 6mm.
Polyphagotarsonemus latus, this species has a large host range and is distributed worldwide. Female mites are about 0.2 mm long and oval in outline. Their bodies are swollen in profile and a light yellow to amber or green in color with an indistinct, light, median stripe that forks near the back end of the body. Males are similar in color but lack the stripe. The two hind legs of the adult females are reduced to whip-like appendages. The male is smaller (0.11mm) and faster moving than the female. The male’s enlarged hind legs are used to pick up the female nymph and place her at right angles to the male’s body for later mating.
Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, unsegmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. With serious concerns about the use of nematicide in terms of food safety and environmental quality issue.
Many land snails and slugs are pests in landscapes, vegetable gardens and greenhouses when they feed on plants. They feed directly on foliage and fruit which is the main concern and damage from these molluscs can be severe. Their preference for succulent foliage makes them serious pests of seedlings, herbaceous plants, and fruit ripening close to the ground, e.g., chrysanthemums, Alstroemeria. The most destructive snails and slugs are often introduced exotic species. Both slugs and snails have fleshy, soft, slimy legless bodies that range in color from whitish-yellow to black; most are mottled with shades of gray. Their eyes are carried on the ends of stalks or appendages on the head. Snails and slugs have similar bodies and both are protected by the mucus that they secrete. Snails have a hard spiral shell on their backs while slugs lack external shells completely .Snail shells provide protection from predators and during periods of excessive heat and dryness.
Many land snails and slugs are pests in landscapes, vegetable gardens and greenhouses when they feed on plants. They feed directly on foliage and fruit which is the main concern and damage from these molluscs can be severe. Their preference for succulent foliage makes them serious pests of seedlings, herbaceous plants, and fruit ripening close to the ground, e.g., tomatoes and strawberries. The most destructive snails and slugs are often introduced exotic species.
Both slugs and snails have fleshy, soft, slimy legless bodies that range in color from whitish-yellow to black; most are mottled with shades of gray. Their eyes are carried on the ends of stalks or appendages on the head. Snails and slugs have similar bodies and both are protected by the mucus that they secrete. Snails have a hard spiral shell on their backs while slugs lack external shells completely .Snail shells provide protection from predators and during periods of excessive heat and dryness.
Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.
Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous pest of major importance. Mature larvae are recognized with broadly stripes of yellow, green or brown. The adult moth is yellowish, with brown markings and a 1-1/2 inch wingspan.
The moth is a small, greyish brown with narrow front wings, conspicuously fringed hind wings, and approximately 8 to 9 mm long with a wing span of 12 to 15 mm. When at rest, the wings come together to form a line of white or pale yellow diamonds down the middle of the back. When the wings are folded while the moth is at rest, these markings come together to form three yellow diamonds, hence the name “diamondback”. The life cycle involves seven developmental stages: egg, four larvae instars, pupa and Adult.
Cyclamen mites are tiny arachnids that are oval, translucent white to yellow-green in colour and are 0.25mm in size with six legs for the first nymph and eight legs for the remaining stages. They are very difficult to identify until severe damages occur. Cyclamen mites are mostly found on the base of the plant or near the buds. They prefer darkened humid areas of immature leaves and buds in growing tips.
Bulb mites infest the bulbs of many plant species among them; lilies, onions, tulip, hyacinth and many other vegetable crops, cereals and ornamentals. They can occur in the field during growing and in storage after harvest.
Vegetable leafminer is a small black fly with a bright yellow spot on their thorax; the maggot makes long, slender, white mines (tunnels) in leaves. Mining or puncturing activities on the plant causes cosmetic damage and makes it an important pest. The larvae are often visible within the mine where they remove mesophyll between the surfaces of the leaf.
Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of a number of species of adult moths. Grayish hairless caterpillar of waxy appearance that attacks vegetables during nights and hides in the soil during the day. The larvae stage attacks the first part it encounters, the stem and often the seedling. The adult moth has brown wings with 1-1/2 inch wingspan.
The larval, or caterpillar, stages of several moths and butterflies are occasional pests of many horticultural crops. The different species vary in colour and size. Most caterpillars have 3 pairs of true legs and up to 5 pairs of prolegs or claspers.
Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.
Mealybugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults. The most common species in the greenhouse is the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri.
Red spider mites (RSM, Tetrachys urticae) also known as Two-Spotted mites, are tiny arachnids establish on crop plants, causing characteristic damage to leaves. Adults and juveniles feed on the underside of leaves, sucking out the cell contents resulting in chlorotic spots on the upper leaf surface. The mites measuring about 0.5mm long with an oval-shaped body that varies in colour from greenish-yellow, to virtually transparent, brown, and red-orange with two dark spots visible on either side of the abdomen. The life cycle involves five developmental stages: egg, larva, two nymphal stages, and adult. Immatures resemble adults (except they are much smaller and lighter in colour), and the newly hatched larvae have only six legs.
Red spider mites are known to rapidly develop resistance to chemical controls. Using IPM is crucial for the effective management of RSM on crops.
Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.
Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their colour ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.